<noframes id="jnh5h">

<noframes id="jnh5h">
    <sub id="jnh5h"><listing id="jnh5h"></listing></sub>
    <form id="jnh5h"></form>
    <noframes id="jnh5h">

    <sub id="jnh5h"></sub>
      <form id="jnh5h"><nobr id="jnh5h"><progress id="jnh5h"></progress></nobr></form>

      <address id="jnh5h"></address><address id="jnh5h"></address>
        <address id="jnh5h"></address>
          <address id="jnh5h"></address>
          <address id="jnh5h"><listing id="jnh5h"><listing id="jnh5h"></listing></listing></address>
          <address id="jnh5h"><listing id="jnh5h"><listing id="jnh5h"></listing></listing></address>
          <noframes id="jnh5h"><address id="jnh5h"></address><sub id="jnh5h"></sub>

            上線4560天,已幫助
            出國留學
            你好網 > 全球國家庫 > 菲律賓教育制度

            菲律賓教育制度

            2013/5/28 來源:維基百科 責任編輯:馮未

            Education in the Philippines

            During the period of colonization by the United States, Education in the Philippines changed radically, modeled on the system of Education in the United States of the time. After the Second World War, changes in the US system were no longer automatically reflected in the Philippines, which has since moved in various directions of its own.

            Filipino children may enter public school at about age four, starting from Nursery up to Kindergarten. At about seven years of age, children enter elementary school (6 to 7 years). This may be followed by secondary school (4 years). Students may then sit for College Entrance Examinations (CEE), after which they may enter tertiary institutions (3 to 5 years). Other types of schools do exist, such as Private schools, Preparatory schools, International schools, Laboratory High Schools and Science High Schools. Several ethnic groups, including Chinese, British, Americans, and Japanese operate their own schools.

            Elementary schooling is compulsory, but 24% of Filipinos of the relevant age group do not attend, usually due to absence of any school in their area, education being offered in foreign languages only, or financial distress. In July 2009 DepEd acted to overcome the foreign language problem by ordering all elementary schools to move towards mother-tongue based learning initially. The order allows two alternative three-year bridging plans. Depending on the bridging plan adopted, the Filipino and English languages are to be phased in as the language of instruction for other subjects beginning in the third and fourth grades.

            Secondary schooling is compulsory, and is of four years duration only.

            The school year in the Philippines starts in June of one year and ends in March of the next, with a two-month summer break for April and May, one week of semestral break (the last week of October), and a week or two of Christmas break.

            In 2005, the Philippines spent only about US$138 per pupil compared to US$1,582 in Singapore, US$3,728 in Japan, and US$852 in Thailand.

            History and development

            Earlier times

            In pre-Spanish times, education was informal unstructured in some areas. Children were provided more vocational training and less academics (3 Rs) by their parents and in the houses of tribal tutors. When the Spanish arrived in Manila, though, they were surprised to find a population with a literacy rate using a system of writing known as baybayin which was higher than th literacy rate of Madrid.

            Spanish period

            Under the Spanish, education indigenous population was initially left to religious orders, with primary education being overseen by parish friars who generally tolerated the teaching of only religious topics. The friars, recognizing the value of a literate indigenous population, built printing presses to product material in Bambayin. The friars, generally poorly educated themselves, were especially hostile to local population, termed indios learning to speak and read Spanish, which would have made available access to the same body of knowledge the friars had. Secular education was completely neglected; with only one public primary school operating in Manila as late as 1830. A 1714 royal decree creating secular universities was never implemented. A 1702 decree creating seminaries for natives was implemented only in 1772.

            Access to education by the Filipinos was later liberalized through the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863 which provided for the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government; and the establishment of a normal school for male teachers under the supervision of the Jesuits. Primary instruction was secularized and free and the teaching of Spanish was compulsory. In 1866, the total population of the Philippines was only 4,411,261. The total public schools was 841 for boys and 833 for girls and the total number of children attending these schools was 135,098 for boys and 95,260 for girls. In 1892, the number of schools had increased to 2,137, 1,087 of which were for boys and 1,050 for girls. By 1898, enrollment in schools at all levels exceeded 200,000 students.

            First Republic

            The defeat of Spain by American forces paved the way for Aguinaldos Republic under a Revolutionary Government. The schools maintained by Spain for more than three centuries were closed for the time being but were reopened on August 29, 1898 by the Secretary of Interior. The Burgos Institute in Malolos, the Military Academy of Malolos, and the Literary University of the Philippines were established. A system of free and compulsory elementary education was established by the Malolos Constitution.

            American period

            An adequate secularized and free public school system was established during the first decade of American rule upon the recommendation of the Schurman Commission. Free primary instruction that trained the people for the duties of citizenship and avocation was enforced by the Taft Commission per instructions of President William McKinley. Chaplains and non-commissioned officers were assigned to teach using English as the medium of instruction.

            A highly centralized public school system was installed in 1901 by the Philippine Commission by virtue of Act No. 74. The implementation of this Act created a heavy shortage of teachers so the Philippine Commission authorized the Secretary of Public Instruction to bring to the Philippines more than 1,000 teachers from the United States called the Thomasites between 1901 to 1902. These teachers were scattered throughout the islands to establish barangay schools. The same law established the Philippine Normal School (now the Philippine Normal University) to train Filipino teachers for the public schools.

            The high school system supported by provincial governments, special educational institutions, school of arts and trades, an agricultural school, and commerce and marine institutes were established in 1902 by the Philippine Commission. In 1908, the Philippine Legislature approved Act No. 1870 which created the University of the Philippines. The Reorganization Act of 1916 provided the Filipinization of all department secretaries except the Secretary of Public Instruction.

            Two decades later, enrollment in elementary schools was about 1 million from a total of 150,000 students in 1901.

            After World War II

            In 1947, by virtue of Executive Order No. 94, the Department of Instruction was changed to Department of Education. During this period, the regulation and supervision of public and private schools belonged to the Bureau of Public and Private Schools.

            Marcos era

            In 1972, the Department of Education became the Department of Education and Culture by Proclamation 1081.

            Following a referendum of all barangays in the Philippines from 10–15 January 1973, on 17 January 1973 President Marcos ratified the 1973 Constitution by Proclamation 1102. The 1973 Constitution set out the three fundamental aims of education in the Philippines, to:

            foster love of country;

            teach the duties of citizenship; and

            develop moral character, self discipline, and scientific, technological and vocational efficiency.

            On 24 September 1972, by PD No 1, the Department of Education, Culture and Sports was decentralized with decision-making shared among thirteen regional offices.

            In 1978, by PD No 1397, the Department of Education and Culture became the Ministry of Education and Culture.

            The Education Act of 1982 provided for an integrated system of education covering both formal and nonformal education at all levels. Section 29 of the Act sought to upgrade education institutions standards to achieve quality education, through voluntary accreditation for schools, colleges, and universities. Sections 16 & 17 upgraded the obligations and qualifications required for teachers and administrators. Section 41 provided for government financial assistance to private schools.The Act also created the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports.

            Fifth Republic

            On 2 February 1987, a new Constitution for the Philippines was ratified. Section 3, Article XIV of the 1987 Constitution contains the ten fundamental aims of education in the Philippines.

            In 1987 by virtue of Executive Order No. 117, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports, became the Department of Education, Culture and Sports . The structure of DECS as embodied in EO No. 117 remained practically unchanged until 1994.

            On 26 May 1988 Congress enacted Republic Act 6655, the Free Public Secondary Education Act of 1988, which manndated free public secondary education commencing in the school year 1988-1989.[13][14] On 26 May 1988 Congress enacted RA 6655 which made free public secondary education to become a reality.

            On 3 February 1992, Congress enacted Republic Act 7323, which provided that students aged 15 to 25 may be employed during summer or Christmas vacation with a salary not lower than the minimum wage. 60% of the wage is to be paid by the employer and 40% by the government.On 3 February 1992, Congress enacted RA 7323 which provided that students aged 15 to 25 may be employed during summer or Christmas vacation with a salary not lower than the minimum wage. 60% of the wage is to be paid by the employer and 40% by the government.

            The Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) report of 1991 recommended the division of DECS into three parts. On 18 May 1994, Congress passed Republic Act 7722, the Higher Education Act of 1994, creating the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), which assumed the functions of the Bureau of Higher Education, and supervises tertiary degree programs.On 25 August 1994, Congress passed Republic Act 7796, the Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 1994, creating the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), which absorbed the Bureau of Technical-Vocational Education plus the National Manpower and Youth Council, and supervises non-degree technical-vocational programs.[17] DECS retained responsibility for all elementary and secondary education.[13] This threefold division became known as the trifocal system of education in the Philippines.

            The trifocal education system of the Philippines

            In August 2001, Republic Act 9155, otherwise called the Governance of Basic Education Act, was passed transforming the name of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) to the Department of Education (DepEd) and redefining the role of field offices (regional offices, division offices, district offices and schools). RA 9155 provides the overall framework for (i) school head empowerment by strengthening their leadership roles and (ii) school-based management within the context of transparency and local accountability. The goal of basic education is to provide the school age population and young adults with skills, knowledge, and values to become caring, self-reliant, productive and patriotic citizens.

            In January 2009, DepEd signed a memorandum of agreement with the United States Agency for International Development to seal $86 million assistance to Philippine education, particularly the access to quality education in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), and the Western and Central Mindanao regions.

            Levels of education

            Level/Grade

            Typical age

            Preschool

            Various optional programs

            Under 6

            Nursery

            3-4

            Kindergarten

            4-5

            Preparatory

            5-6

            Elementary school

            1st Grade

            6–7

            2nd Grade

            7–8

            3rd Grade

            8–9

            4th Grade

            9–10

            5th Grade

            10–11

            6th Grade

            11–12

            7th Grade (in some schools)

            12-13

            High school

            1st year high school (Freshman)

            12-14

            2nd year high school (Sophomore)

            13-15

            3rd year high school (Junior)

            14-15

            4th year high school (Senior)

            16–17

            Post-secondary education

            Tertiary education (College or University)

            Ages vary (usually four years,
            referred to as Freshman,
            Sophomore, Junior and
            Senior years)

            Vocational education

            Ages vary

            Graduate education

            Adult education

            Primary school

            Primary school is also called Elementary school (Filipino: Mababang Paaralan). It consists of six levels, with some schools adding an additional level (level 7). The levels are grouped into two primary subdivisions, Primary-level, which includes the first three levels, and Intermediate-level, which includes the last three or four levels.

            Primary education in the Philippines covers a wide curriculum. The core subjects (major subjects) include Mathematics, Sciences, the English and Filipino languages, and Makabayan (Social Studies, Livelihood Education, Values). Other subjects include Music, Arts, and Physical Education. Starting at the third level, Science becomes an integral part of the core subjects. On December 2007, Philippine president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo announced that Spanish is to make a return as a mandatory subject in all Filipino schools starting in 2008.[19][20] That announcement has not yet come into effect. In private schools, subjects include Mathematics, English, Science, Social Studies, Basic Computer, Filipino, Music, Arts and Technology, Home Economics, Health, Physical Education, and in Catholic schools, Religion or Christian Living. International schools and Chinese schools have additional subjects, especially in their language and culture.

            DECS Bilingual Policy is for the medium of instruction to be Filipino for: Filipino, Araling Panlipunan, Edukasyong Pangkatawan, Kalusugan at Musika; and English for: English, Science and Technology, Home Economics and Livelihood Education.[21] Article XIV, Section 7 of the 1987 Philippine constitution mandates that regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein.[22] As a result, the language actually used in teaching is often a polyglot of Filipino and English with the regional language as the foundation, or rarely the local language. Filipino is based on Tagalog, so in Tagalog areas (including Manila), Filipino is the foundational language used. Philippine regional languages are also used outside Manila in the teaching of Makabayan. International English language schools use English as the foundational language. Chinese schools add two language subjects, such as Min Nan Chinese and Mandarin Chinese and may use English or Chinese as the foundational language. The constitution mandates that Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis. Following on this, a few private schools mainly catering to the elite include Spanish in their curriculum. Arabic is taught in Islamic schools.[22] Primary-level students generally graduate with a knowledge of two or three languages, although most primary school graduates in Manila cannot speak English.

            Until 2004, primary students traditionally sat for the National Elementary Achievement Test (NEAT) administered by the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS). It was intended as a measure of a schools competence, and not as a predictor of student aptitude or success in Secondary school. Hence, the scores obtained by students in the NEAT were not used as a basis for their admission into Secondary school. During 2004, when DECS was officially converted into the Department of Education (DepEd), and also, as a result of some reorganization, the NEAT was changed to National Achievement Test (NAT) by the Department of Education (DepEd). Both the public and private elementary schools take this exam to measure a schools competency. As of 2006, only private schools have entrance examinations for Secondary school.

            DepEd expects over 13.1 million elementary students in public elementary schools for school year 2009-2010.[23]

            Secondary education

            Secondary education in the Philippines is largely based on the American schooling system as it was until the advent of the comprehensive high schools in the US in the middle of last century. The Philippines high school system (Filipino: Mataas na Paaralan) has not moved much from where it was when the Philippines achieved independence from the US in 1946. It still consists of only four levels with each level partially compartmentalized, focusing on a particular theme or content.

            DepEd specifies a compulsory curriculum for all high schooling, public and private. The first year of high school has five core subjects, Algebra I, Integrated Science, English I, Filipino I, and Philippine History I. Second year has Algebra II, Biology, English II, Filipino II, and Asian History. Third year has Geometry, Chemistry, Filipino III, and World History and Geography. Fourth year has Calculus, Trigonometry, Physics, Filipino IV, Literature, and Economics. Minor subjects may include Health, Music, Arts, Technology and Home Economics, and Physical Education.

            In selective schools, various languages may be offered as electives, as well as other subjects such as computer programming and literary writing. Chinese schools have language and cultural electives. Preparatory schools usually add some business and accountancy courses, while science high schools have biology, chemistry, and physics at every level.

            Secondary students used to sit for the National Secondary Achievement Test (NSAT), which was based on the American SAT, and was administered by DepEd. Like its primary school counterpart, NSAT was phased-out after major reorganizations in the education department. Now there is no government-sponsored entrance examination for tertiary education. Higher education institutions, both public and private, administer their own College Entrance Examinations (CEE). Vocational colleges usually do not have entrance examinations, simply accepting the Form 138 record of studies from high school, and enrolment payment.

            DepEd expects over 5.6 million students in public secondary schools for school year 2009-2010.

            Technical and vocational education

            Technical and vocational education is offered to enhance students practical skills at institutions usually accredited and approved by TESDA. Institutions may be government operated, often by provincial government, or private. The vast majority are privately operated and most call themselves colleges. They may offer programs ranging in duration from a couple of weeks to two year diploma courses. Programs can be technology courses like automotive technology, computer technology, and electronic technology; service courses such as caregiver, nursing aide, hotel and restaurant management; and trades courses such as electrician, plumber, welder, automotive mechanic, diesel mechanic, heavy vehicle operator. Upon graduating from most of these courses, students may take an examination from TESDA to obtain the relevant certificate or diploma.

            Tertiary education

            Main article: Higher education in the Philippines

            Tertiary education in the Philippines is increasingly less cosmopolitan. From a height of 5,284 foreign of students in 1995-1996 the number steadily declined to 2,323 in 2000-2001, the last year CHED published numbers on its website.[24] In 2000-2001, 19.45% were from the US, 16.96 from South Korea, 13.00 % from Taiwan, and the rest from various other countries.Many Korean students come to the Philippines to study English for 6 months or more, then transfer abroad to Australia, Canada, the United States, or other countries for degrees. Some Koreans complete their tertiary education in the Philippines, especially in the temperate climate of Baguio, in the Cordillera highlands.

            Other schools

            Chinese schools

            Chinese schools add two additional subjects to the core curriculum, Hôa-gí華語(Chinese grammar and literature) and Ti?ng-hàp綜合(Chinese communication). Some add two more, namely, Chinese History and Chinese Culture. Still, other Chinese schools called cultural schools, offer Confucian classics and Chinese history as part of their curriculum. Notable Chinese schools include Immaculate Conception Academy, Xavier School, primary, secondary, and tertiary schools in San Juan, Metro Manila; Makati Hope Christian School located along Don Chino Roces Avenue (formerly known as Pasong Tamo Extension) in Makati; Saint Jude Catholic School and St. Peter the Apostle School, Chinese Catholic schools near Malacañang; Philippine Tiong Se Academy, Philippine Cultural College, Chiang Kai Shek College, St. Stephens High School, Hope Christian High School in Sta. Cruz, Manila and Uno High School, secondary and tertiary institutions in Binondo, Manila; Jubilee Christian Academy, Grace Christian College, Leyte Progressive High School in Tacloban, Oro Christian Grace School in Cagayan de Oro City, and La Union Cultural Institute in San Fernando City, La Union.

            Islamic schools

            In 2004, the Department of Education adopted DO 51 putting in place the teaching of Arabic Language and Islamic Values for (mainly) Muslim children in the public schools. The same order authorized the implementation of so-called Standard Madrasah Curriculum (SMC) in the private madaris (Arabic for schools, the singular form is Madrasah).

            While there has been recognized Islamic schools, i.e. Ibn Siena Integrated School (Marawi), Sarang Bangun LC (Zamboanga) and SMIE (Jolo), their Islamic studies varies.With the DepEd-authorized SMC, the subject offering is uniform across these private Madaris.

            Since 2005, the AusAID-funded DepEd-project Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM) has assisted a group of private madaris seeking government permit to operate (PTO) and implement the SMC. To date, there are 30 of these private madaris scattered throughout Regions XI, XII and the ARMM.

            The SMC is a combination of the RBEC subjects (English, Filipino, Science, Math and Makabayan) and the teaching of Arabic and Islamic studies subjects.

            Region XI - Pilot Integrated Madrasah (Davao Oriental), Al-Munawwara Islamic School (Davao City)

            Region XII - WAMY Academy (Gensan), Kumayl LC (Koronadal), Darul Uloom (Tamontaka, Cotabato City), Al-Nahdah Academy (Campo Muslim, Cotabato City), SKC Madrasah Abubakar (Bagua, Cotabato City) and Sultan Kudarat Academy (Sinsuat Ave, Cotabato City)

            ARMM (Marawi City) - Jamiato Janoubel Filibbien, Jamiato Marawi al-Islamia, Khadijah Pilot Madrasah, Princess Jawaher IS.

            ARMM (Lanao del Sur) - Mahad Montashir (Masiu), Mahad Aziziah and Sharawi LC (Butig), Madrasah Falah al-Khayrie (Lumba Bayabao), Mahad Lanao (Malabang), As-Salihein Integrated School (Tamparan), others.

            ARMM (Maguindanao Valley) - Ibn Taymiyyah Academy (Shariff Kabunsuan), Mahad Maguindanao (Ampatuan), Madrasah Datu Tahir (Mamasapano), Mahad Rahmanie Al-Islamie (Sharif Aguak). Through the philanthopy of Governor Datu Andal Ampatuan and his family, Mahad Rahmanie is being re-designed and re-constructed to position it to become the premier institution of integrated learning in the ARMM. When the whole infrastructure development is done, it will be renamed Shariff Aguak Ibn Ampatuan Memorial Academy.

            ARMM (Island Provinces) - Mahad Dawah (Lamitan City), Kulliyato Talipao (Talipao, Sulu), CHILD Madrasah (Bongao, Tawi-Tawi). The CHILD Madrasah is a special project and laboratory school of the MSU-TCTO College of Islamic and Arabic Studies (CIAS).

            立刻知道您能移民哪些國家?

            想去的國家:
            美國
            加拿大
            英國
            塞浦路斯
            葡萄牙
            香港
            澳大利亞
            新西蘭
            愛爾蘭
            拉脫維亞
            新加坡
            周歲年齡:
            家庭總資產大約:
              萬元人民幣
            填寫手機號:
              接收測試結果
            亚洲夜夜性无码,国产孕妇作爱在线观看,三级特黄60分钟在线播放,色综合久久综合网观看